Other ADV Investigation
- Sperm Penetration Assay (Hamster Egg Penetration Test)
The sperm penetration assay is the most accurate test to predict the ability of sperm to fertilize an egg. It also aids in determining if laboratory techniques might improve the sperm’s ability to fertilize. The sperm penetration assay (SPA) as a measure of fertility is based on the theory that fertile sperm samples will penetrate most hamster ova and thereby approximate penetration in vivo.The prepared sperm iffunctionally competent,can complete the first steps of fertilization including the penetration of the egg,the calculation of which gives the actual percentages of penetration.
A percentage above 50% indicates that the sperm should have the ability to fertilize. An unstimulated sample with a percentage between 30 percent and 50 percent indicate that stimulation of the sample might improve fertilization during artificial insemination. A percentage of 30 or less indicatesthat the likelihood of a sperm defect is high and
intracytoplasmicsperm injection (ICSI + IVF) are usually recommended.
- Anti-Sperm Antibody Test :
In few males, barriers thatusually exist to "hide" sperm from the body’s immune
system undergo breakdown thus rendering the sperms to be identified as foreign by one’s own immune system which results in production of antbodies. These antibodies attach themselves to sperm and cause severely diminished motility and / or
agglutination. The presence of antibodies is evaluated by testing seminal fluid, semen, and serum.Evaluation of presence of these antisperm antibodies is especially performed prior to a vasectomy reversal. Females may also produce anti-sperm antibodies and
should be evaluated when ever necessary.
Retrograde Semen Analysis :
A retrograde semen analysis is usually indicated for patients with a small sample volume and absent sperms in the semen analysis, seen more commonly in patients with Retrograde ejaculation (ejaculation of semen into the bladder). This condition is most commonly seen in patients who have a past surgical or medical history.Predisposing factors include testicular cancer surgery (RPLND), transurethral surgery of the prostate, or childhood bladder surgery. Medical conditions such as diabetes, MS, or spinal cord injury may also predispose an individual to retrograde ejaculation. In such patients urine
voided following sexual activity will contain sperm in men and .
Hormone Evaluation :
In cases of Aspermia(absent sperms)or Oligospermia (low sperm count) in the initial semen analysis, evaluation of the levels of hormones like follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and prolactin is done to give proper diagnosis and eventually the proper treatment.
Post Vasectomy Analysis :
This is done usually in individuals following vasectomy (4-5 weeks post procedure) to assess the status of vas deferens. The sample is evaluated for the presence or absence of spermatozoa. Presence of non-motile sperms might indicate the need of additional ejaculations to fully clear the reproductive tract of sperm.Several post vasectomy analyses may be needed.