Diagnostic Evaluation of Male Infertility

To pinpoint the cause of infertility, a variety of tests should be performed, differing from individual to individual :
Semen Analysis — To evaluate the Sperm
count, Motility, Progressivemotility, Spermmorphology, Presence of Leukocytospermia.

Semen deficiencies are often labeled as follows:

  • Oligospermia or Oligozoospermia - decreased number of spermatozoa in semen
  • Aspermia - complete lack of semen
  • Hypospermia - reduced seminal volume
  • Azoospermia - absence of sperm cells in semen
  • Teratospermia - increase in sperm with abnormal morphology
  • Asthenozoospermia - reduced sperm motility

There are various combinations of these as well, e.g. Teratoasthenozoospermia, which is reduced sperm morphology and motility.

Low sperm counts are often associated with decreased sperm motility and increased abnormal morphology, thus the terms "oligoasthenoteratozoospermia" or "oligospermia" can be used.
This is done in our most advanced State of the Art Andrology Lab—CASA (Computer Assisted Semen Analysis) to give you the most accurate, reliable, prompt and precise results.

Hormone evaluation -- measures blood levels of the hormones involved in sperm production,
abnormal hormonal levels are indicative of the hormonal problems described that cause infertility.

Semen culture -- checks for bacteria in the semen which either cause or indicate a genital infection that may cause infertility.

Biochemical analysis of semen -- measures various chemical in semen; a chemical imbalance may impair fertility.

Sperm penetration assay (Hamster test)-- measures sperm-egg membrane fusion using hamster eggs by a man’s sperm: tests the capability of the sperm to penetrate the egg during IVF.

A thorough physical examination and history can diagnose physical problems such as varicocoeles,
Klienfelter’s Syndrome, retrograde ejaculation, erectile disfunction, and premature ejaculation.
An absence of sperm in the semen sample is indicative of ejaculatory incompetence, retrograde ejaculation, or one of the conditions that block the spermatic ducts.

Scrotal Ultrasound : To rule out the presence of varicocoele, presence, absence or underdevelopment of testis, anyinfections, hydrocele etc.,

Penile Doppler : To determine proper blood flow to the penis which is very important to evaluate the cause of Erectile Dysfunction.

Nocturnal Penile Tumescence monitoring (NPT/Rigi Scan) To evaluate the presence of Erectile Dysfunction.

Few advanced investigations are done at our centre...

DNA Fragmentation Index(DFI): High levels of DFI indicate low chances of fertility.

Reactive Oxygen Species(ROS): This helps to assess the risk of sperm damage based on the availability of free radicals in our body that might cause damage to the plasma membrane of the sperm.

There are few other novel investigations that are done exclusively to evaluate Endothelial Dysfunction which is now considered as Surrogate measure of Erectile Dysfunction viz..,ENDOPAT


  • Before the doctor prescribes you any tests the doctor would like to know about your medical history thorough a physical examination. The doctor can also ask about your sexual or personal history. Few of these queries will seem very personal and may feel invasive and disturbing. However, it is vital that you give the answer of these questions very honestly. The doctor would also like to speak to your sexual partner as the partner is in a position to offer an inside reason for the causes that are responsible for the ED.
  • After proper examination and interview, your doctor may ask to get the few tests done likeComplete blood count (CBC), Dynamic infusion cavernosometry, Liver and kidney function tests, Penile biothesiometry, Lipid profile, Nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT), Vasoactive injection, Cavernosography, Thyroid function test, Blood hormone studies, Urinalysis, Duplex ultrasound, Arteriography. Tests that are performed in the laboratory are very useful to look for frequent etiologic factors and, when specified, to recognize hypogonadal syndromes. Suitable evaluation of ED leads to perfect advice, organization and recommendation of patients with this particular problem.